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  • Urology and Kidney Health
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    Urology is associated with the Human Urinary tract and Uro-Genital system. We observe patients who take consultation and get benefitted from our expert urologists who have a good experience in the treatment of conditions related to the kidneys, Urinary bladder, Prostate, urethra, and other urological organs and disorders related to them.

    Urology related problems or diseases affect the male, female, and children’s Urogenital and reproductive system. These urological conditions may directly or indirectly result in peeing too much or sometimes peeing too little. If ignored, it may lead to failure of kidneys, the main organ behind production of urine. In a few cases, it may also have a negative impact on male and female reproductive health and fertility.

    Urinary tract:

    Your urinary system is crucial to your body because it removes waste and extra fluid by transporting them outside of it. It is made up of both your kidneys and your ureters, your bladder, and your urethra. Each organ accomplishes a different task (listed in the order below):

    Kidney: A kidney is a bean-shaped organ that is located underneath your rib cage on either side of your spine, between your shoulders. You have two kidneys, each weighing about 120-160 gms , which together filter nearly 200 litres of blood every 24 hours through multiple cycles, removing waste and balancing fluids. Thus, adult healthy kidneys produce average 1-1.5 litres of urine every day.

    Ureters: Ureter is a narrow tube of 20-25 cm length which connects kidney to urinary bladder. When your kidneys create urine, that fluid travels down through the two ureters to the urinary bladder which is located in between your hip bones. Kidney stones can pass through the ureters or get stuck inside them if they are too large. If the stones are too large, you may require surgery to remove them to protect your ureters and kidneys.

    Urinary Bladder: The bladder, which is a sac-like organ between your hip bones, is an organ that is responsible for storing urine. The bladder can hold approximately 350 to 400 ml of urine before it gives you signal to empty it.

    Urethra: The urethra is the final tube of your urinary tract one end of which is connected to urinary bladder and the other end is the exit. In males, the urethra is 14-18 cms long whereas in females it short, about 4 cms. There are internal and external sphincters through which we control the timing of urination.

    Prostate: prostate is a chestnut shaped vestigial organ specific to males, present
    Bat the junction of urinary bladder and Urethra. Its secretions add into the volume of human semen and provide nutrition to the sperms.

    Reproductive Organs: Male and female reproductive organs are part of Urogenital system which are necessary for reproduction as well as for sexual satisfaction. Inadequate health of reproductive organs may lead to infertility, male and female sexual dysfunction (ED, PME and HSDD) and impotence. Urologists with interest in andrology treat such cases, which is a part of complete Urology training.

    Proper functioning of All the organs in the urogenital system is necessary in a healthy person. There are many diseases specific to different organs and are diagnosed and treated accordingly, yet Kidney stone is one of the most common and significant Urological condition we come across in routine urology OPD.

    Kidney Stones:

    Kidney Stone is one of the major Urological conditions seen in our Indian society. Back or flank pain, Blood in the urine and burning sensation while passing urine are the most common symptoms of patients presenting with kidney or ureteric stones. We refer patients to our expert urologists who have decades of experience in the treatment of conditions related to the kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and other urological conditions.

    Kidney stone formation:

    You may not feel any pain or just have a boggy feeling in the flank as long as these kidney stones remain in their current location. You will feel discomfort though when they leave your kidney and slip in to the ureter. Thus, for years, you might not even be aware of the existence of these kidney stones. There are special situations when a stone can form more quickly than normal, for instance with metabolic disorders where a stone may recur within a few months of the initial removal of the stone.

    If you are at risk for recurrent kidney stone formation, discuss your risk factors with a trusted and experienced urologist, and they might perform a 24-hour urine test to see how fast you are developing them.

    Symptoms of kidney stones:

    Back discomfort, blood in the urine, nausea/vomiting, and agony are some of the signs of kidney stones. Kidney stones typically range in size from a chickpea to a golf ball, but they can also be as little as a grain of sand.

    How are kidney stones treated:

    The first step toward treatment is having your healthcare provider, a qualified Urologist diagnose you correctly. If your Urologist decides you need treatment, you have the choice between medication and surgery. Larger stones may generally need surgery, but smaller stones (less than 5-6 mm) can usually pass via the urinary tract with medical expulsion therapy.

    People with kidney disease and associated illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity are at a higher risk of kidney failure if the stones are left untreated.


    As far as kidney stones are concerned, there are four types of surgery that can be used to treat them:

    LASER UreteroRenoscopic Surgery (Laser URS/RIRS): In this treatment, an endoscopic device known as a ureteroscope is placed into the patient’s ureter through the urethra, bladder, and ureter. Through ureteroscopy, the stone in the ureter is broken / pulverised into smaller pieces using a LASER so that they can be more readily passed via the urinary tract. If the stone is in the kidney, Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery (RIRS) is done with a flexible ureteroscope which can access the interior of kidney through the ureters and provide LASER therapy to remove the stones. Post procedure, a small tube is passed into the ureter to safeguard it and is removed typically in 2-4 weeks.

    Shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL): In shockwave lithotripsy, you will be placed on a special type of table or tub that sends high-energy shockwaves through the water to the kidney stone. The shockwaves break down the stone if it’s not too hard (HU 1000 or less) or too big, and then the fragments are usually flushed out of the kidneys and body in due course of time.

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL): In situations where it’s not possible to treat kidney stones with the other procedures due to the number of stones, the size of the stones, or the location of the stones, Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is recommended. During this procedure, a small incision (just as a key hole) is made in your back in order to insert a tube directly into your kidney. The stones are then disintegrated by Lithoclast or LASER and suctioned out of the kidney so that you are you are stone free immediately after a successful PCNL.

    Open stone surgery: During open stone surgery which is rarely done now a days, a large cut is made in the flank to access the kidney directly to remove the stones. It is now an almost obsolete procedure due to widely practised minimally invasive endoscopic stone surgery with better results and lesser hospital stay.
    The first three are minimally invasive procedures. URS/RIRS and PCNL are a type of operation in which either the surgeon enters the body through a normal opening (like the urethra) or makes a small incision in the skin to access the stones. In ESWL, no surgery is required and the stones are broken extracorporeally. These minimally invasive procedures have least pain and high success rate with minimal hospital stay.

    So, In case you are experiencing any Urology, Andrology or kidney Stone related issues, get in touch with our experts for consultation and for best in class treatment! Stay Healthy, Live Long!

    12 Dec 2022
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    By isic
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